Papers by Hine, A.C.

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Evans, M.W. , Hine, A.C. , Belknap, D.F. , and Davis Jr., R.A. . 1985. Bedrock controls on barrier island development: west-central Florida Coast. Marine Geology, v. 63, p. 263-283. #0734
Davis, R.A. , Hine, A.C. , and Belknap, D.F. . 1985. Geology of the Barrier island and marsh-dominated coast, west-central Florida. Geological Society of America Field Trip Guide Book, Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, 119p.
Evans, M.W. and Hine, A.C. . 1986. Quaternary infilling of the Charlotte Harbor estuarine/lagoonal system, southwest Florida: implications of structural control. SEPM Annual Midyear Meeting Abstracts, Raleigh, N.C.
Hine, A.C. , Mearns, D.L. , Davis, R.A. , and Bland, M. . 1986. Impact of Florida's Gulf coast inlets on the coastal sand budget. Departments of Marine Science and Geology, University of South Florida, St. Petersberg and Tampa, FL, 128 p. #1131
Hine, A.C. . 1987. Evaluation of the Lee County coastline: dominant processes, shoreline change, stabilization efforts, and recommendations for beach management. Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL
Hine, A.C. and Belknap, D.F. . 1988. Recent geological history and modern sedimentary processes along an incipient, low-energy, epicontinental-sea coastline: Northwest Florida.. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 58(4): 567-579.
A major portion of Florida's Gulf of Mexico coastline is a siliciclastic, sand-starved, low-wave-energy system dominated by marshes that face the open sea. Within a 65-km sector along this 300-km-long, open-marine marsh coast, four distinctly different morphological sectors have been identified: 1) berm-ridge marsh shoreline, 2) marsh peninsula shoreline, 3) marsh archipelago shoreline, and 4) shelf embayment shoreline. The underlying Paleogene limestone bedrock topography results from karstification and dissolution processes. This antecedent topography and distribution of actively discharging freshwater springs affect sedimentary processes, facies, and stratigraphic units. Within the inner continental shelf, very little of the marsh stratigraphy or large oyster bioherms is preserved. Only those sediments that have accumulated within bedrock depressions or sinkholes have the best chance for long-term retention. Thus, a condensed stratigraphic section is produced.
Evans, M.W. and Hine, A.C. . 1991. Late Neogene sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate-siliciclastic transition: southwest Florida. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, no. 5, p. 679-699
Locker, S.D. and Hine, A.C. . 1996. Magnitude and timing of episodic sea-level rise during the last deglaciation..
A succession of elevated ridge deposits on the south Florida margin was mapped using high-resolution seismic and side-scan sonar imaging in water depths ranging from 50 to 124 m. The ridges are interpreted to be subtidal shoal complexes and paleoshorelines (eolian dune or beach) formed during the last sea-level transgression. Oolitic and skeletal grainstones and mixed skeletal-peloidal-ooid packstones were recovered using a research submersible. All of the grains are of shallow-water or intertidal origin, and both marine and nonmarine cements were identified. Formation and preservation of these features are attributed to episodic and rapid changes in the rate of the deglacial sea-level rise at the onset of the termination 1A delta (super 18) O excursion. This high-resolution record of sea-level change appears to be related to deglacial processes operating on submillennial time scales and supports increasing evidence of rapid episodic fluctuations in ice volume, climate, and ocean-circulation patterns during glacial-interglacial transitions.
Locker, S.D. , Hine, A.C. , Brooks, G.R. , Doyle, L.J. , Blake, N.J. , Guy, K. , and Suthard, B. . 1999. Anclote Keys area side scan sonar imagery map. USGS Open File Report OF 99-0442
Locker, S.D. , Brooks, G.R. , Hine, A.C. , Davis Jr., R.A. , Twichell, D.C. , and Hafen, M. . 1999. Compilation of geophysical and sedimentological data sets for West-Central Florida Coastal Studies Project. USGS Open File Report OF 99-0539
Hine, A.C. , Brooks, G.R. , Davis Jr., R.A. , Doyle, L.J. , Gelfenbaum, G. , Locker, S.D. , Twichell, D. , and Weisberg, R. . 2001. A Summary of findings of the West-Central Florida Coastal Studies project. USGS Open File Report OF 01-0303
Duncan, D.S. , Locker, S.D. , Brooks, G.R. , Hine, A.C. , and Doyle, L.J. . 2003. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic infilling of a Neogene carbonate shelf-valley system: Tampa Bay, West-Central Florida. Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 125-156
The shelf-valley system underlying Tampa Bay, Florida?s largest estuary, is situated in the middle of the Neogene carbonate Florida Platform. Compared to well-studied fluvially incised coastal plain valley systems, this shelf-valley system is unique in its karstic origin and its alternating carbonate-siliciclastic infill. A complex record of sea-level changes, paleo-fluvial variability and marine processes have controlled the timing and mechanisms of this `compound? shelf-valley infill. A dense grid of high-resolution, single-channel seismic data were collected at the mouth of Tampa Bay, in an attempt to define this stratigraphy, determine the controls on deposition, and define the underlying structure of this shelf-valley system. The seismic data were correlated with nearby wells and boreholes for lithologic and age control. Sequence stratigraphic methods were incorporated in order to develop an integrated chronostratigraphy for the depositional infilling of the shelf-valley system. Five seismic sequences were identified. Sequence boundaries generally show erosional truncation and karstification, with downlap of overlying sequences. Structure contour and isopach maps indicate that the Tampa Bay shelf-valley system has remained in essentially the same location since its formation in the early Miocene, although the provenance of sedimentary infill has changed. This change is due to increasing amounts of siliciclastic material during the Neogene. Seismic facies interpretations indicate lower-energy, northward prograding deposition dominated by predominantly carbonate sediments within the lowest Sequence A. Higher energy, siliciclastic fluvio-deltaic deposition within sequences B and C originates to the east and northeast of the shelf-valley system related to a Pliocene pulse of sedimentation onto the Florida Platform. Finally, marine processes (longshore transport, ebb-tidal delta formation) dominate the upper two sequences (D and E), reworking these siliciclastic sediments into a spatially mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional setting.
Edwards, J.H. , Harrison, S.E. , Locker, S.D. , Hine, A.C. , and Twichell, D.C. . 2003. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida . Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 195-217
Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (~1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may have co-existed spatially and/or temporally to explain the distribution of facies and vertical facies contacts.
Harrison, S.E. , Locker, S.D. , Hine, A.C. , Edwards, J.H. , Naar, D.F. , Twichell, D. , and Mallinson, D.J. . 2003. Sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed carbonate/siliciclastic inner shelf off west-central Florida. Marine Geology, v. 200, P. 171-194
High-resolution side-scan mosaics, sediment analyses, and physical process data have revealed that the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic, inner shelf of west-central Florida supports a highly complex field of active sand ridges mantled by a hierarchy of bedforms. The sand ridges, mostly oriented obliquely to the shoreline trend, extend from 2 km to over 25 km offshore. They show many similarities to their well-known counterparts situated along the US Atlantic margin in that both increase in relief with increasing water depth, both are oriented obliquely to the coast, and both respond to modern shelf dynamics. There are significant differences in that the sand ridges on the west-central Florida shelf are smaller in all dimensions, have a relatively high carbonate content, and are separated by exposed rock surfaces. They are also shoreface-detached and are sediment-starved, thus stunting their development. Morphological details are highly distinctive and apparent in side-scan imagery due to the high acoustic contrast. The seafloor is active and not a relict system as indicated by: (1) relatively young AMS 14C dates (<1600 yr BP) from forams in the shallow subsurface (1.6 meters below seafloor), (2) apparent shifts in sharply distinctive grayscale boundaries seen in time-series side-scan mosaics, (3) maintenance of these sharp acoustic boundaries and development of small bedforms in an area of constant and extensive bioturbation, (4) sediment textural asymmetry indicative of selective transport across bedform topography, (5) morphological asymmetry of sand ridges and 2D dunes, and (6) current-meter data indicating that the critical threshold velocity for sediment transport is frequently exceeded. Although larger sand ridges are found along other portions of the west-central Florida inner shelf, these smaller sand ridges are best developed seaward of a major coastal headland, suggesting some genetic relationship. The headland may focus and accelerate the N?S reversing currents. An elevated rock terrace extending from the headland supports these ridges in a shallower water environment than the surrounding shelf, allowing them to be more easily influenced by currents and surface gravity waves. Tidal currents, storm-generated flows, and seasonally developed flows are shore-parallel and oriented obliquely to the NW?SE trending ridges, indicating that they have developed as described by the Huthnance model. Although inner shelf sand ridges have been extensively examined elsewhere, this study is the first to describe them in a low-energy, sediment-starved, dominantly mixed siliciclastic/carbonate sedimentary environment situated on a former limestone platform.
Hine, A.C. , Brooks, G.R. , Davis Jr., R.A. , Duncan, D.S. , Locker, S.D. , Twichell, D.C. , and Gelfenbaum, G. . 2003. The west-central Florida inner shelf and coastal system: a geologic conceptual overview and introduction to the special issue. Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 1-17
This paper provides an overview for this special publication on the geologic framework of the inner shelf and coastal zone of west-central Florida. This is a significant geologic setting in that it lies at the center of an ancient carbonate platform facing an enormous ramp that has exerted large-scale control on coastal geomorphology, the availability of sediments, and the level of wave energy. In order to understand the Holocene geologic history of this depositional system, a regional study defined by natural boundaries (north end of a barrier island to the apex of a headland) was undertaken by a group of government and university coastal geologists using a wide variety of laboratory and field techniques. It is the purpose of this introductory paper to define the character of this coastal/inner shelf system, provide a historical geologic perspective and background of environmental information, define the overall database, present the collective objectives of this regional study, and very briefly present the main aspects of each contribution. Specific conclusions are presented at the end of each paper composing this volume.
Locker, S.D. , Hine, A.C. , and Brooks, G.R. . 2003. Regional stratigraphic framework linking continental shelf and coastal sedimentary deposits of west-central Florida. Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 351-378
A regional study of the Holocene sequence onlapping the west-central Florida Platform was undertaken to merge our understanding of the barrier-island system with that of the depositional history of the adjacent inner continental shelf. Key objectives were to better understand the sedimentary processes, sediment accumulation patterns, and the history of coastal evolution during the post-glacial sea-level rise. In the subsurface, deformed limestone bedrock is attributed to mid-Cenozoic karstic processes. This stratigraphic interval is truncated by an erosional surface, commonly exposed, that regionally forms the base of the Holocene section. The Holocene section is thin and discontinuous and, north or south of the Tampa Bay area, is dominated by low-relief sand-ridge morphologies. Depositional geometries tend to be more sheet-like nearshore, and mounded or ridge-like offshore. Sand ridges exhibit 0.5?4 m of relief, with ridge widths on the order of 1 km and ridge spacing of a few kilometers. The central portion of the study area is dominated nearshore by a contiguous sand sheet associated with the Tampa Bay ebb-tidal delta. Sedimentary facies in this system consist mostly of redistributed siliciclastics, local carbonate production, and residual sediments derived from erosion of older strata. Hardground exposures are common throughout the study area. Regional trends in Holocene sediment thickness patterns are strongly correlated to antecedent topographic control. Both the present barrier-island system and thicker sediment accumulations offshore correlate with steeper slope gradients of the basal Holocene transgressive surface. Proposed models for coastal evolution during the Holocene transgression suggest a spatial and temporal combination of back-stepping barrier-island systems combined with open-marine, low-energy coastal environments. The present distribution of sand resources reflects the reworking of these earlier deposits by the late Holocene inner-shelf hydraulic regime.
Donahue, B. , Hine, A.C. , Locker, S.D. , Twichell, D.C. , and Tebbens, S. . 2003. Late Holocene estuarine inner shelf interactions; is there evidence of an estuarine retreat path for Tampa Bay, Florida?. Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 219-241
The purpose of this study was to determine if and how a large, modern estuarine system, situated in the middle of an ancient carbonate platform, has affected its adjacent inner shelf both in the past during the last, post-glacial sea-level rise and during the present. An additional purpose was to determine if and how this inner shelf seaward of a major estuary differed from the inner shelves located just to the north and south but seaward of barrier-island shorelines. Through side-scan sonar mosaicking, bathymetric studies, and ground-truthing using surface grab samples as well as diver observations, two large submarine sand plains were mapped ? one being the modern ebb-tidal delta and the other interpreted to be a relict ebb-tidal delta formed earlier in the Holocene. The most seaward portion of the inner shelf studied consists of a field of lobate, bathymetrically elevated, fine-sand accumulations, which were interpreted to be sediment-starved 3D dunes surrounded by small 2D dunes composed of coarse molluscan shell gravel. Additionally, exposed limestone hardbottoms supporting living benthic communities were found as well. This modern shelf sedimentary environment is situated on a large, buried shelf valley, which extends eastward beneath the modern Tampa Bay estuary. These observations plus the absence of an incised shelf valley having surficial bathymetric expression, and the absence of sand bodies normally associated with back-tracking estuarine systems indicate that there was no cross-shelf estuarine retreat path formed during the last rise in sea level. Instead, the modern Tampa Bay formed within a mid-platform, low-relief depression, which was flooded by rising marine waters late in the Holocene. With continued sea-level rise in the late Holocene, this early embayment was translated eastward or landward to its present position, whereby a larger ebb-tidal delta prograded out onto the inner shelf. Extensive linear sand ridges, common to the inner shelves to the north and south, did not form in this shelf province because it was a low-energy, open embayment lacking the wave climate and nearshore zone necessary to create such sand bodies. The distribution of bedforms on the inner shelf and the absence of seaward-oriented 2D dunes on the modern ebb-tidal delta indicate that the modern estuarine system has had little effect on its adjacent inner shelf.
Brooks, G.R. , Doyle, L.J. , Suthard, B.C. , Locker, S.D. , and Hine, A.C. . 2003. Facies architecture of the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic inner continental shelf of west-central Florida: implications for Holocene barrier development . Marine Geology, v. 200, p. 324-349
Sediment vibracores and surface samples were collected from the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic inner shelf of west?central Florida in an effort to determine the three-dimensional facies architecture and Holocene geologic development of the coastal barrier-island and adjacent shallow marine environments. The unconsolidated sediment veneer is thin (generally <3 m), with a patchy distribution. Nine facies are identified representing Miocene platform deposits (limestone gravel and blue?green clay facies), Pleistocene restricted marine deposits (lime mud facies), and Holocene back-barrier (organic muddy sand, olive-gray mud, and muddy sand facies) and open marine (well-sorted quartz sand, shelly sand, and black sand facies) deposits. Holocene back-barrier facies are separated from overlying open marine facies by a ravinement surface formed during the late Holocene rise in sea level. Facies associations are naturally divided into four discrete types. The pattern of distribution and ages of facies suggest that barrier islands developed approximately 8200 yr BP and in excess of 20 km seaward of the present coastline in the north, and more recently and nearer to their present position in the south. No barrier-island development prior to approximately 8200 yr BP is indicated. Initiation of barrier-island development is most likely due to a slowing in the Holocene sea-level rise ca. 8000 yr BP, coupled with the intersection of the coast with quartz sand deposits formed during Pleistocene sea-level highstands. This study is an example of a mixed carbonate/siliciclastic shallow marine depositional system that is tightly constrained in both time and sea-level position. It provides a useful analog for the study of other, similar depositional systems in both the modern and ancient rock record.
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